harvey Historical Documents
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BOOK

CARLETON, JOHN WILLIAM (ED). 1838

The Sporting Review

The Sporting Review

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BOOK

WARD, EDMUND. 1841

An Account of the River St. John, with Its Tributary Rivers and lakes

An Account of the River St. John, with Its Tributary Rivers and lakes

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BOOK

ATKINSON, CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM 1843

A Guide To New Brunswick British North America

A Guide To New Brunswick British North America

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BOOK

GESNER, ABRAHAM, 1847

New Brunswick; With Notes for Emigrants

New Brunswick; With Notes for Emigrants

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BOOK

NEW BRUNSWICK LEGISLATURE, 1847

Reports relating to the project of constructing a railway, and a line of electro-magnetic telegraph, through the province of New Brunswick from Halifax to Quebec

Reports relating to the project of constructing a railway, and a line of electro-magnetic telegraph, through the province of New Brunswick from Halifax to Quebec

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BOOK

 ALEXANDER, J.E. 1849

L'acadie; seven years' explorations in British America.

L'acadie; seven years' explorations in British America

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BOOK

HOUSE OF COMMONS. 1849

Reports from the commissioners: Nine Volumes

Reports from the commissioners: Nine Volumes

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BOOK

JOHNSTON, JAMES, F.W. 1851

Notes on North America: Agricultural, Economical, and Social

Notes on North America: Agricultural, Economical, and Social

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BOOK

CASSELL, JOHN. 1852 

Cassell's emigrant handbook being a guied to the various fields of emigration in all parts of the globe

Cassell's emigrant handbook being a guied to the various fields of emigration in all parts of the globe

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BOOK

 MONRO, A. 1855

New Brunswick; With A Brief Outline Of Nova Scotia, And Prince Edward Island. Their History, Civil Divisions, Geography And Productions

New Brunswick; With A Brief Outline Of Nova Scotia, And Prince Edward Island. Their History, Civil Divisions, Geography And Productions

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BOOK

PERLEY, M.H. 1857

A Hand-Book Of Information For Emigrants To New Brunswick

A Hand-Book Of Information For Emigrants To New Brunswick

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BOOK

BOYD, J. 1858

A report on New-Brunswick Railways, to the Chamber of Commerce, Saint John, New Brunswick

A report on New-Brunswick Railways, to the Chamber of Commerce, Saint John, New Brunswick

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JOURNAL

BROWN, J. 1860

Third Essay. New Brunswick as a home for emigrants: with the best means of promoting immigration, and developing the resources of the province

Third Essay. New Brunswick as a home for emigrants: with the best means of promoting immigration, and developing the resources of the province

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BOOK

HAMILTON, JOHN, R. 1884

St. John and the province of New Brunswick

St. John and the province of New Brunswick

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BOOK

W.G. GANONG (ED) 1909

The Journals and Maps of the Survey of the Magaguadavic in 1797

The Journals and Maps of the Survey of the Magaguadavic in 1797

New Brunswick Government Documents
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DOCUMENT

SAINT JOHN, SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1837 

The New Brunswick Courier

The New Brunswick Courier

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TABLE

IMMIGRANTS WHO ASK LAND ON THE NEW ST ANDREWS ROAD AUTUMN 1837

LIST OF IMMIGRANTS

LIST OF IMMIGRANTS

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ARCHIVE

NEW BRUNSWICK ARCHIVES 1838

Harvey Settlement Location Report From the Commissioners For Locating 25 Families of English Settlers

Harvey Settlement Location Report From the Commissioners For Locating 25 Families of English Settlers

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ARCHIVE

NEW BRUNSWICK ARCHIVES 1839

Report of the Commissioners For Locating the Northumberland Emigrants

Report of the Commissioners For Locating the Northumberland Emigrants

Letters Referring to Aspects of the Community as a Whole
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ARCHIVE

BY GEORGE TURNER

hand written letter

hand written letter

Carleton, John William (ed). 1838. The Sporting Review 347 p. Digitized 9 May 2007. Google Books but not available for download. Original publication at Oxford University.

There is a brief entry referring to the nascent Harvey Settlement on p. 198:

…our baggage, we met the settlement road, and pursuing that for a short way, arrived at the “Clearing” called the “Harvey Settlement” where a few men of our corps were then stationed. Here we left our heavy traps, to be forwarded at some future opportunity, and started on the way back to Fredericton. After a walk of about eleven miles, during which we killed some brace of partridges we arrive at the…

Ward, Edmund. 1841. An Account of the River St. John, with Its Tributary Rivers, 2nd Ed. Sentinal Office, Fredericton. 96 p. Digitized 17 Nov 2005.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 3.1 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

Excerpt from p. 4,5, 46, which discusses Harvey Settlement.

“Leaving the Hanwell, the road passes through much good farming land with several patches of swamp and barrens, and some ranges of “stony ground”” until it comes near the Etina Lake, where Chassey, an active Canadian and several other settlers, have for a number of years been located. Here the soil is good and productive, and the same good land, broken in some places as above, continues on each side of the line to the Harvey settlement. This a settlement composed entirely of English and Scottish emigrants, Borderers, who having been unfortunate in their bargain with the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company, were under the particular patronage of the government settled there by way of experiment. Thy suffered severe hardships and privations for a time, both sexes carrying heavy loads on their backs a great distance through the wilderness; but have now comfortable dwellings, and clearings in the woods, have raised fine crops these two last years, and the neatly thatched “stacks of corn” that abound in the settlement, remind one of the old country. They and the Hanwell Irishmen are first-rate road makers. Beyond this settlement there is a beautiful district of excellent land, all owned an held in a wilderness state by the proprietors, until the expenditure of the public money on the road, and the labours of the poor emigrants shall quadruple its value; when passing near the Oromocto Lake, we come to the spot where Mr. Ensor, and eccentric English gentleman, some years since made a clearing and built a house, which have since been abandoned.” Further discussion on p. 92 also describes conditions in Harvey Settlement: “Passing through this settlement [Harvey] in a hurried manner, I had but little time for observation. I saw sufficient however to satisfy me, of the very great improvements that its inhabitants have effect within a short time. There are extensive clearing’ and everywhere the indications of comfort and contentment. This settlement was commenced in 1837, the individuals composing it receiving advances from government, which they have nearly repaid by labour upon the main road to St. Andrews. And as a proof of what may be effected by industry and attention, besides labouring on the road, these people succeeded in raising during the last year on twenty-seven allotments, from 184 acres which were under crop 13 tons of hay, 2037 bushels of oats, 192 bushels of wheat, 436 bushels of barley and other grain, 6781 bushels potatoes, 813 bushels turnips, and twenty bushels of other roots. They have also at present fifteen cows, seven horses, four oxen, seven sheep and nineteen swine; and there are besides three hundred and twenty-seven acres chopped, which will be in crop next year; exclusive of what I saw that have been chopped during the present winter."

Atkinson, Christopher William 1843, A Guide To New Brunswick British North America, 223 p., Anderson & Bryce, Edinburgh, 4.3 MB download. Digitized 15 Mar 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 4.3 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.

There is a brief mention of Harvey on p. 59:

“The Harvey Settlement is composed of English and Scotch emigrants. A few years ago they suffered severe hardships and privations, but at present they are in comfortable dwellings, and making great clearings in the woods. “

Gesner, Abraham, 1847, New Brunswick; With Notes for Emigrants. Comprehending the Early History. Simmonds & Ward, London, 388. p. Digitized 17 Nov 2005.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 13.2 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

In a passage on p. 163 Gesner notes that:

“The Harvey settlement, still farther south, was made by English and Scotch emigrants, who were unable to succeed under the system of the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company, and were established upon their present lands by the Government, as an experiment in colonization. After having endured many hardships, they have redeemed the soil, and now live in comfort and prosperity. The Harvey settlement borders upon a fine tract of hard wood land of good quality; but it is owned by absentee and rich land proprietors, who will doubtless let it remain in its present state until its value is increased fourfold by the road and surrounding clearing of the poor backwoodsmen. The St. Andrew’s Road passes near the Oromocto Lake, a pretty sheet of water abounding in trout and other kinds of fish. The side of this lake was chosen by a Mr. Ensor, an eccentric English gentleman, for a farm and residence; but his clearing and house have been abandoned. There is a scattered but striving little band of forestmen on the upper part of the Magaguadavic at the Brockway settlement….”

New Brunswick Legislature, 1847. Reports relating to the project of constructing a railway, and a line of electro-magnetic telegraph, through the province of New Brunswick from Halifax to Quebec, J. Simpson, Fredericton, 115 p. 7.1 MB download. Digitized 26 January 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 7.1 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY.

There is a discussion of Harvey beginning on p. 31.

"Two very striking instances of success attending the formation of new Settlements in the Wilderness, by associations of Settlers, having the privilege of making their own Roads at a reasonable rate, can be adduced in this County. The Harvey Settlement was formed in 1837 by a party of emigrants from the North of England, who landed in New Brunswick in a very destitute condition. A Report upon this Settlement was presented to His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor, by the Hon. L.A. Wilmot, the Commissioner who formed it, on the 9th Feburary, 1844, accompanied by a statistical Return. This Report states, that it is shewn by the Return, that from land where not a tree was felled in July, 1837, there had been taken, during the preceding autumn, 260 tons of Hay and Straw, and 15,000 bushels of Grain, Potatoes and Turnips; and that the great succes which had attended the labours of these inudstrious and valuable Settlers, afforded an unquestionable proof of what might be done on the millions of Wilderness Land in New Brunswick. The Return shows the number of Settlers to be 45, and the value of their improvmensts to be £4,289 10s. The Settters accompanied the original Return with the following observations: - "The climate of New Brunswick agrees well with the constitution of Englishmen; the air is salubrious, and the water as pure and wholesome as any in the world. During the six years of our location but two deaths have occurred, while there have been thirty nine births without the presence of Medical aid. six years' experience have convinced us, that notwithstanding the privations to which new Settlers are exposed, diligence and perseverence must ensure success."

 
 
 
 
 

Alexander, J.E. 1849. L'acadie; seven years' explorations in British America. In two volumes. Vol. II. Henry Colburn, Publisher, London, 347 p. 7.4 MB download. Digitized 20 March 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 7.4 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.

There are entries referring to Harvey beginning on p. 204:

I remained a short time in Fredericton to prepare reports and maps, and I record with great satisfaction the many attentions shown me by the Lieutaenant-Governor and his family, also by the worthy Attorney-General, Mr. Peters, Mr. Parker, the Master of the Rolls, Mr. Street, Solicitor-General, &c. I also made two or three very agreeable excursions with my friend Professor Robb, by the thriving Harvey Settlement to the beautiful Oromoocto Lake, &c. whilst waiting to hear from Lieutenants Simmons and Woods, with whose work I was to connect mine, when I should ascertain the course they were steering.*

*I beg particular to direct the atention of the future traveller in New Brunswick to the Bald Mountain, near the Harvey settlement. It is a great mass of porphyry, with a lake (probably in the crater) near the summit. It is on the edge of the coal measures, where they touch the slate. All the Harvey settlement, in fact, is on the very edge of these rocks.

 

House of Commons. 1849. Reports from the commissioners: Nine Volumes - (2.) - Colonial land and emigration; copyholds; Darley main colliery; divisions of parishes; facotries; fine arts; inclosure; lunacy; mining districts; mining inspetion (Germany); national vaccine establishemnt; new churches; signet and privy seal offices; tithes. 512 p. 13.8 MB download. Digitized 15 Aug 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 43.7 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

The following "Report From the Commissioners" on the progress of the Harvey Settlement is made on p. 59:

The county of York contains and area of 3440 square miles, with a population of 21, 000, and 60 parish schools. The ciy of Fredericton, the seat of government, is in this county, on the right back of the river, distant from St. John by the river 75, and by the road 66 miles.

Five steamers, with the numerous sailing vessels ply night and day with freight and passengers, during the navigaion between Fredericton and St. John.

The track of land granted to the Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Land Company, has left but a small portion at the disposal of the Government on the eastern side of the river below the Nackawick. Extensive settlements are found on the Nashwalk and Keswick Rivers, and on the rear land between thsoe rivers and the upper line of the county. On the western side of the river there are numerous back settlements.

At the distance of 24 miles from Fredericton, on the great road to St. Andrew's is the Harvey settlement formed in 1837, by emigrants from Northumberland (England)' and which, by its present thriving condition, proves what can be done by sober and industrious men, even on an inferior quality of soli.

Accompanying this, is a tabular return of the state of the settlement in 1843, with the remarks of the Commissioner.

With such settlers for our ungranted lands, the most astonishing and gratifying results would soon be manifest.

In the vicinity of Harvey is an Irish settlement, formed in December, 1841, under the gratuitous management of the same Commissioner, whose Report and Return accompany those of the Harvey settlement, and furnish an additional proof of the success attending perservering industry.

Some good tracts of land are still ungranted beyond the Harvey on the Magadavic River and its branches and lakes, and in the vicinity of the contemplated railway between St. Andrew's and Woodstock.

 

Johnston, James, F.W. 1851. "Notes on North America: Agricultural, Economical, and Social ". Volume II William Blackwood and Sons Edinburgh and London. 512 p. 13.8 MB download. Digitized 15 Aug 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 13.8 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

The passage below was taken from “Notes on North America, Agricultural, Economical and Social” by the Scottish agricultural chemist, Professor James EW. Johnston of Durham University. In his book Johnston describes an 1850 journey through eastern North America where he documented the loss of natural soil fertility, demonstrating in particular the depleted condition of the soil in New York state as compared to the more fertile farmlands to the West. Despite the travelogue style of his writing Johnston’s book was to become enormously influential. Based on his reading of the book Karl Marx came to refer to Johnston as the "the English Liebig,", after Jusus Liebig the famous German plant biologist of ‘Limiting Growth Factors’ fame. In the following excerpt Johston makes observations on the then newly founded Harvey Settlement providing a unique professional perspective on the future prospects of the community. Excerpt below was taken from CIHM#35750 at the University of New Brunswick (Canadian Institute of Historical Microreproductions), pages 168 to 178 inclusive: (Spelling as appeared in original). A second entry referring to Harvey is found on p. 202 and 203.

NOTES
on
NORTH AMERICA
Agricultural, Economical,
and Social
by
JAMES F. W. JOHNSTON
M.A.,F.R.S.SI., & E, F.G.S, C.S, &c.
Reader in Chemistry and Mineralogy in the University of Durham
Two Volumes
VOL. II
William Blackwood and Sons
Edinburgh and London
MDCCCLI
(1851)

 

p. 168-178.
Having crossed this belt of swamp, we passed the Trout Brook, a feeder of the Macadavic, and, descending towards this river, drove for a couple of miles along a cleared upper intervale of granitic sand to Vail's, about thirty miles from St Stephens, where we stopped to bait.


We were now on the banks of the Macadavic, a river near the mouth of which, at St George, I had spent part of the previous Friday. At this point, and for some distance above and below, a broad space intervened between the hills on both sides. This space was occupied by marshy islands overflowed by the river in floods, but from which Mr Vail yearly obtained much of his winter's hay-of a small portion of dry intervale land of good quality, from which good crops of grain were obtained-but chiefly of an extensive low flat swamp of stunted pines, which, if cleared, was naturally too wet for cultivation. At a higher level was the second intervale of sandy soil, along which my road had brought me, and upon which four or five farms had been cleared, but which required some attention to manure, if regular crops were desired from it.


While my horse was baiting, I crossed the river and walked forward over the mile of flat swamp which intervened between the river and the hills, and over which the road ran. The last rocks I had seen were slates more or less metamorphic; but when I reached the steep hill, I found myself at a lofty escarpment of grey sandstone conglomerate, the base on this side, as I believe, of the New Brunswick coal-measures. I saw no rocks in place beneath the grey conglomerate; but my time did not admit of much search. Vail informed me, however, that there was limestone in the flat swamp, at some distance from the road. On the top of the hill I passed for some distance patches of red drift, in connection with which a drifted mass of gypsum had been met with. I infer, therefore, that this broad swamp between the hill and the river represents the former site of: or now actually covers, the soft red rocks, the red marls, the deposits of gypsum, the limestone, and perhaps the red conglomerate, which, in this order, are found beneath the grey coal-measures of New Brunswick. A search through the woods would probably discover traces of them; and such a search may be rewarded by the discovery of tracts of available land now hidden in the wilderness.


After ascending the hill, the same grey conglomerate, or grey coal-measure sandstones overlying it at a low angle, formed seven miles of a stony pine-clad wilderness table-land, before we came to a few miserable clearings on soil which, during the present arid season, had yielded most scanty crops. Grey sandstones, for the most part thinner bedded, accompanied me afterwards--forming, with occasional exceptions, poor and stony soils-all the way to Fredericton. The surface of the harder of these rocks, when they come occasionally today, and are uncovered by drift, exhibit the grooves and polish usually attributed to the action of currents and icebergs during what bas been called the diluvial or drift period.


One of the exceptions to the general poor character of the land is seen at the Harvey Settlement, about twenty-five miles from Fredericton. This settlement, named after Sir John Harvey, who was the governor at the time it was commenced, is now one of the most flourishing in the province. It was formed in the summer and autumn of 1 837, by a number of families who came from the neighbourhood of Wooler in Northumberland, after some arrangement with the officers, and for the purpose, of settling on the lands of the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company. On their arrival at Fredericton, however, in July 1837, they found no preparation had been made by the Company for their reception or location. Being poor, they were at once thrown upon the public bounty; and though a few got employment, yet the great bulk, both of the men and of their families, were soon in distress. The Legislature, therefore, at once assigned to them the tract of land they now occupy, furnished them with supplies, and appointed a commission-at the head of which was the present Attorney-general-to assist in arranging the division of the land, and other necessary matters.


At first twenty-three families, comprising about two hundred individuals, were located; and though they endured many hardships, especially during the first winter, yet only two deaths occurred among them all for six years after their arrival, while there were thirty-nine happy births without medical aid. There are now fifty-three families of them, counting in all between three and four hundred souls, each family owning from three to five cows, and a hundred acres of land at least.


The cultivated land of these numerous farms lies on a succession of low ridges, between which cedar-swamps of greater or less extent intervene, and interfere both with regular clearing and cultivation, and with the continuity of farms. I stayed over night at this settlement, in a comfortable little inn kept by a Mr. Cockburn, who had several sons grown up, all of whom but one had already left him, and settled on farms of their own.


Nov. 13.--A second tier of lots--a second concession, as it would be called in Lower Canada --has been taken up and settled behind the farms first laid out here, along the high-road. The families of the old emigrants of 1837 are now becoming straitened for room. They complain bitterly that all the good land within immediate reach has been granted to speculators, who hold it from year to year to get the benefit of the increase in value which arises from the settlements made all around them. For the good of the province, such parties ought certainly to be compelled either to improve so much within a given time, to pay a tax to the local funds, or to sell at a fair price to those who would improve.


Behind the second tier of farms are extensive carriboo plains and pine-swamps as far as the Magadavic Lake; but, exploring in search of good land, the young pioneers of the settlement have discovered a tract of rich hardwood land in the midst of the wilderness beyond this lake, to which there is at present no access for want of roads, and no facility of settlement, because of its present remoteness from all human habitations. It is by such explorations, the results of natural expansion, that the better lands are discovered, and the means of successful extension afforded to the families of the older settlers.


Wheat is sown in this settlement among the stumps on the burned land. It gives twenty bushels sometimes; but if it gives ten bushels, it pays them for the little cost incurred with these first crops. Oats and potatoes are the principal produce; and since good mills have been established, the settlers have begun to consume much oatmeal. They are already celebrated for their Timothy seed, which they grow very pure. In 1848 they sold nearly eight hundred bushels, at 14s. 6d. a bushel; but, to the discredit of the province, which ought to have bought it for home consumption, it was carted fifty miles to Calais, and there sold for transport to the Boston market.


Though prosperous now, these settlers, as is the case with all poor settlers, had many difficulties at first, and among others that of having no roads--which those who followed them did not, and do not now anywhere experience in an equal degree. A barrel of flour, which now costs 4s. to bring it from Fredericton, a distance of twenty-five miles, then cost them 19s As they expressed it to me, "A man must work as hard here as at home, and longer hours. He must build his own house, make his own family's shoes, and do many other things. A useless man need not come here." Yet, they added, if a piece of good land was to be got handy, many of their friends were ready to come from home to join them.


In the middle of last summer, I made a short visit to the beautifully farmed country which lies between Cornhill and Yetholm, at the foot of the Cheviots, on either side of the Scottish Border, and near the paternal home of these Harvey settlers. It is a pretty country, at such a season of the year, for the lovers either of the picturesque or of fine farming, to visit. In the small village of Yetholm I found, by the report of the parish minister, that there were no less than thirty able-bodied men, accustomed to work on the adjoining farms, who were then unable to procure a single day's labour. Alarmed by the fall in the prices of grain-foolishly so, I think, on the part of farmers in such a half-pastoral district as that-the holders of the land has ceased to employ a single labourer they could dispense with. How the country suffers from this, besides the individual privation and misery it occasions! Every one of these patient intelligent men who emigrates is a loss to his country; and yet, I thought, how much more happy and permanently comfortable would those now idle men be, were they situated with their families on little farms of their own, like their old neighbours now settled at Harvey. Had I known of a bit of good land "handy" to that settlement, I could have felt in my heart to urge them to make up a party among themselves with the view of going there, and to offer to aid them in their views. Every one such man would be an invaluable gain to the province of New Brunswick.


The settlement has its school and a permanent school-master-an intelligent man, with whom I had some conversation-not overpaid, nor above the necessity of mending his own clothes, and making shoes for his family. It has regular visits, also, from a Presbyterian clergyman, and was about to build a church with the view of securing his resident services. It has now also its own corn-mill; and all this where, only twelve years before, was an unexplored wilderness. How much a small knot of industrious men, without capital, and without the aid of a rushing immigration, such as pours into the North-western States, may, even in unfavourable circumstances, in a short period effect!


I conversed with two of the settlers as to their own history and progress. Mr. Grieves was a shepherd at Whittingham, on the Border. He landed at Fredericton, in 1837, with a family often, and with only 7s. 6d. in his pocket. He did not come out immediately to Harvey along with the other settlers, but having received his grant of land, he hired himself as a farm-servant to Colonel Shore at Fredericton, at £30 a-year; and such of his children as could do anything he hired out also. Supporting the rest of his family out of his earnings, he saved what he could; and whenever he had a pound or two to spare, he got an acre or two of his land cleared. In this way he did good to the other settlers, by bringing some money among them and giving a little employment. At last, four years ago-that was, after seven years' service-he came out, and settled on his land himself: building a good house for his family right away-that is, without the previous erection of a log-house, as is usually the case; and a very good house he appeared to have. He now owns seven hundred acres of land in different lots, and has clearings of twenty acres on each of three or four of these farm-lots, intended for his several sons, who appear to be as industrious as himself.


When I asked him how it was that he appeared to have got on better than the rest of those around him, he said, "he and his family had saved it off their backs and their belly." But he added -and it really moved mc to find here lingering some heart and gratefulness still for kindness conferred, among so many who are filled only with grumbling and discontent-"Few have had so good a chance as I had, sir, or have met with so kind a master." I afterwards had the pleasure of meeting that master at Fredericton, and found him as grateful for the warm attachment and zealous service of so good a hind. I can well fancy a canny Northumbrian shepherd, with his thriftily brought up, obedient, and respectful children, gaining friends in New Brunswick, and thriving as Grieves has done. "Had I my life to begin again, "he said, "I would come out here; for though I might not have more comfort myself, there is the satisfaction of providing well for my family."


Mr. Pass was a different character. He was an Englishman from a more southern district, and had been the manager of a chemical work in some of the midland counties. He had saved £ 150, brought up his only son as a carpenter, and then came out six years ago, and settled at the northern end of Harvey. He had done well, he said, but through hard work; and all who have done well say the same. He considered himself better than at home, and that no climate could exceed that of his new country. It is especially the place for the labouring man, for he cannot worser himself; and, if he is industrious, is always getting better. This, in reality, is the great charm of these new regions, that the poor man, from the moment he places his feet in the country, if he be industrious, is constantly ascending the ladder, and is cheered by increasing prosperity. But after he and his sons have attained to competence, and the stimulus to great exertion ceases, the progress is not so rapid, and a man cannot himself, or through his sons, progress indefinitely in wealth and station, as at home. At least it is not done, and a kind of listlessness creeps over the second or third generation -the provincial-born-which has given rise to the no doubt well-founded remark to which I have already adverted, that the new immigrants are more energetic and industrious than the native provincials. Why is it so? One reason assigned here, as in other places of which I have spoken, is that, so long as you till your own land, or work at it along with the two or three men you employ, the cultivation in the Provinces, as in the States, is profitable; but that, on a larger scale, farming is not profitable. This is a very general belief in north-eastern America, and, if true, satisfactorily enough accounts for the greater industry and energy of the poorest, and the slackened exertions of the better off. But is the unprofitableness of more extensive farming a necessary or unavoidable thing? This question is a very important one, both to the colony and to intending emigrants. I shall discuss it in the succeeding chapter.


Leaving the Harvey Settlement, on my way to Fredericton, three or four miles of wilderness brought me to the Acton Settlement, which is six years old, and consists of twenty families of Irish. The front lots are occupied by Cork men, Roman Catholics; the rear lots by Protestants. James Moodie, one of the latter, described them as thriving and contented. He owned three hundred acres. He wished to have farms for each of his three sons, and as soon as they saved £15 among them, he bought another one hundred-acre lot.


On a ridge to the right is the Cork Settlement, six miles from that of Harvey. It consists entirely of Cork men, who have not prospered as yet. According to Mr. Pass, the south-country Irish are the poorest men that come out-do the worst, and are the least contented. As at home, they depend upon grants, and charity when the can get it, more than upon their own industry. Many of them have gone into Maine, thinking to better themselves; but they found out their mistake, and had all come back worse than they went.


On the other hand-located in a hut at the cross-roads between Acton and Cork Settlements, weaving, with the aid of his daughters, a home-spun web for one of his neighbours, and, though a professed tee-totaller, not disdaining to make a penny by selling drams-I found one of these Cork men, in propria persona, who had a different tale to tell. He had been a schoolmaster to them, but found it a starving business, as they were all steeped in poverty and debt; and yet they were industrious, he said; and therefore he inveighed against the mother country for not making railways in the province, and sending out money to employ the people. The management of the Irish is still a problem, when unmixed with other population, in whatever country they are. Here was this fellow — M'Mahon by name-unsteady and in debt himself, trying one shift after another, as those that have been unaccustomed to steady labour at home do, industrious after a fashion, but unable to see that it is the persevering industry of the Scottish, English, and Protestant Irish settlers, that makes the luck for which they are envied. This man was a great talker, an encourager and spreader of disaffection among those who would gladly, as they sat idle, ascribe their misfortunes to any man or thing but to themselves. As at home, they get together in junketing and merry-making, and estimate the happiness of a spree far above the every-day comforts of clean well-furnished houses, and plentiful meals all days of the year. But mingle these same men in twos and threes among a great predominance of a steadier race, and the restraint and influence of new example makes their children steadier men than their fathers, and more reasonable and contented citizens.


At the Hanwell Settlement, also Irish, and less prosperous and extensive than Harvey, I did not linger. It is within eight or ten miles of Fredericton, and on inferior land. The grey sandstones -in fact, a sort of stony wilderness-continues thence the whole way to Fredericton. Everywhere blocks of drifted stone and rock strew the surface, or are seen in situ. Beneath the drifted grey rocks, an admixture of red matter was visible in the soil-the debris, no doubt, of red marl rocks towards the north or north-west. Were the superficial stones removed, there are many places where this red material is in sufficient quantity to form a productive soil; but it will be long before labour can be profitably expended in clearing a stony surface like this, which seems almost to set the reclaimer at defiance.


From the high ground above Fredericton, I again felt how very delightful it is, after such a journey as this, to feast the eyes, weary of stony barrens and perpetual pines, upon the beautiful river St John. I thought it, on this occasion, one of the finest rivers I had anywhere seen. Calm, broad, clear, just visibly flowing on, full to its banks, and reflecting from its surface the graceful American elms which at intervals fringe its shores, it has all the beauty of a long lake without its lifelessness. But its accessories are as yet chiefly those of nature-wooded ranges of hills varied in outline, now retiring from, and now approaching the water's edge, with an occasional clearing, and a rare white¬washed house with its still more rarely visible inhabitants, and stray cattle. These differ widely from the numerous craft and massive buildings, signs of art and industry, which strike the traveller's eye, when, leaving Cronstadt behind, he ascends the narrowing Neva. Yet, in some respects, this view of the St John recalled to my mind some of the points on the Russian river: though among European scenery, in its broad waters and forests of pines it most resembled the tamer portions of the sea-arms and fiords of Sweden and Norway.


I reached Fredericton about four in the afternoon, and there found my conductor, besides making me pay very high for his services, most anxious-like so many others of these provincial people-to persuade me that he had done me a great favour besides, in bringing me, and that I was obliged to him in a degree for which my money was no compensation. He could have made more at his ordinary occupation of serving writs and seizing debtors, and it was only to oblige my friends he had brought me at all. I could only regret that my friends should have induced him to do what was so much to his disadvantage, and assure him, that having paid his exorbitant demand, considered I had discharged every sort of obligation lowed him. This sort of thing, in one form or other, the traveller will often meet with in all these new countries; and not least frequently among those who have still a trace of the Irish "never went to service at home, sir" remaining in their heads.

 

Page 202
I have stated that every new immigrant who arrives, if he bring health and a willingness to work, is a gain to the colony; I have also incidentally alluded to the fact — as when speaking of the Harvey Settlement, and of the country on the river Tobique — that there are tracts of good available land scattered through the province, in various counties, which cannot be settled, because of the want of the necessary roads.


Page 203
Bodies of emigrants from the same country or neighbourhood, going out as a single party, would work pleasantly together, and be good company and agreeable neighbours to each other, as those of the Harvey Settlement have been. I believe there is at this moment scarcely a county in Great Britain, in which, if the case were fairly stated, and cheap provision made for carrying the intending emigrants directly to a destination prepared for them would not be found willing, with their families, to engage on such terms to embark for a new country, in which after tho years' hard labour, and some privation, independence and future comfort awaited them.

Cassell, John. 1852 . "Cassell's emigrant handbook being a guied to the various fields of emigration in all parts of the globe with an introductory essay on the importance of emigration and the danger to which emigrants are exposed to which is added a guide to the gold fields fo Australia ". John Cassell, La Belle Sauvage Yard, London. 88 p., 4.5 MB download. Digitized 1 Oct 2007.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 4.5 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM OXFORD UNIVERSITY.

On p. 3 and 4 of the introduction to his book Cassell extensively paraphrases from the discussion of the Harvey Settlement in James Johnston's influential "Notes on North America" published the year before in 1851. Cassell writes:

"Near Frederickton the Professor visted the Harvey Settlement, founded in 1837 by emigrants from the neighbourhood of Wooler, in Northumberland. Twenty-three families, consisting of about two hundred individuals, had come out for the purpose, of settling on the lands of the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company; but no preparation having been made for their reception, they were thrown entirely on their own resources, and being poor, and few of them able at that time to obtain employment, they became involved in great difficulties. The Colonial Legislature, however, assigned them land and supplied them with the provisions for the first year. Though they endured great hardships during their first winter, which settlers in their vicinity would not now be exposed to, only two deaths occurred in six years against thirthy-three births. There are now fifty-three families, comprising between 300 and 400 individuals, each family possessing from three to five cows, and 100 acres of land at least.

 

"Neither our own colonies nor the United States, however, are the place for idlers. A man, said one of these settlers, 'must work as hard as at home and longer hours. He must build his own house, and make the shoes of his family, and do many other things; and yet', he added, 'if a piece of good land was to be found handy, many of their friends and relations from home would join them.'

 

"Professor Johnson, on his return, made a tour on that well-farmed district on both sides of the Scottish Border, at the foot of the Cheviots, whence these people came, and learned from the report of the parish minister that, in the small village of Yetholm, there were thirty able-bodied men, accustomed to work for the neighbouring farmers, who were unable to obtain a day's work. 'Alarmed.' he says, 'by the fall of prices, very foolishily, I think, in the case of a half pastoral district like that, the holders of the land had ceased to employ a single labourer they cou;ld dispense with.... Had I known of a bit of good land handy to that settlement, I could have felt it in my heart to urge these labourers to make up a party among themselves, with a view of going there, and to offer my aide to them in their views. How it would have turned the talbe if these thirty families had emigrated? The history of two of the Harvey settlers speaks volumes. Mr. Grieves was a shepherd at Whittingham on the Border. He landed at Fredericton in 1837, with a family of ten, and only 7s. 6d. in his pocket. Having obtained his parcel of land, he hired himself as a farm-servant with Colonel Shore, at Fredericton, at £30 a-year, (that is, with board); and such of his children as were able to work he hired out too. Whenever he could spare a pouind, he got an acre of his land cleared. After seven years of service, he settled on his land himself, building a house for his family right away - that is, without the previous erection of a log-house, ' and a very good house he appeared to have.'. He has now 700 acres of land in different lots, and has clearings of twenty acres on each of three or four of these lots, intended for his sons. His success has been above the average, which he attributes to his having had a very good master; and when Professor Johnston afterwards met that master, he found him equally grateful for the warm attachment and zealous services of so good a hind. 'Had I my life to begin again,' said Mr. Grieves, 'I would come out here; for though I might have been more comfortable myself, there is the satisfaction of providing well for my family.'

 

"Another of these settlers, Mr. Pass, affords an instance of the success of a small capitalists. He had been the manager of a chemical work in one of the midland counties, and had saved £150. He brought up his only son as a carpenter, and settlered in Harvey. 'I have done well,' he said, 'through hard work; and all who have done well say the same.' He considered himself better off than he would have been at home, and was of opinion that no climate could be better than that of his new country. He considered it also to be especially the place for the labouring man; he cannot worsen himself, and if he is industrious, he is always getting better."

 
 

Monro, A. 1855. "New Brunswick; With A Brief Outline Of Nova Scotia, And Prince Edward Island. Their History, Civil Divisions, Geography And Productions". Richard Nugent, Halifax, 385 p. 25.9 MB download. Digitized 17 Feb 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 25.9 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.

There is a brief mention of Harvey on p. 137.

On p. 167 in a lengthier passage Monro states:

"The road from Fredericton to St. Andrew’s passes through the Hanwell, Cork, Harvey and the other settlements; thus forming an almost continuous line of improvements for the whole distance. The land at Hanville settlement is stony while that of Harvey is good arable land."

 

A particularly interesting passage spanning p. 167, 168 reads:

"The thriving character of the Harvey settlement, at the location of which the writer assisted in 1837, evidently shows that when perseverance, energy, and well directed intelligence are brought to bear on the soils of this country not only may a competency be obtained, but the old adage will certainly be fulfilled, “the hand of the diligent maketh rich”.

There is also a brief discussion of the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company on p. 166.

 

Perley, M.H. 1857. A Hand-Book Of Information For Emigrants To New Brunswick, Effingham Wilson, London, 96 p. Digitized from original at Oxford University, 28 Jun 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 4.8 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

In a short passages spanning pages 70, 71 Perley states that:

“ Two very striking instances of success attending the formation of new settlements in the wilderness by associations of settlers, can be adduced in this country. The Harvey Settlement was formed in 1837, by a party of emigrants from the north of England, who landed in the province in a very destitute condition. The tee-total settlement was formed in 1842, by a party of destitute emigrants from the south of Ireland. Both these settlements are now in the most prosperous and thriving condition; many of the settlers, who at the outset were in actual want, are now possessed of large and valuable farms, while some have become positively wealthy. These persons were assisted, in the first instance, by being employed to make roads through the wilderness to their several settlements, for which they were paid at a reasonable rate. This mode of assistance gave them not only profitable employment, but enabled them to reach their lands with facility. The experiment was attended with complete success, and no doubt might be extended to other part of the Province with the like favourable results.”

Boyd, J. 1858. A report on New-Brunswick Railways, to the Chamber of Commerce, Saint John, New Brunswick (link extracted passages pertaining to Harvey Settlement and downloadable pdf of entire book). 24 p. 1.3 MB download. Digitized 20 Sep 2007. ISBN:0665540108

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 1.3 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM OXFORD UNIVERSITY.

There is a discussion of Harvey on p. 11

In the Harvey Settlement, which twenty years ago was a wilderness, we have farmers who raise each annually two hundred bushels of Grass Seed, for which they have received at their own doors Fifteen Shillings a bushel, thus for this article alone obtaining £150; and so well establihsed are its merits, that leading American houses have their agents here to purchase it; yet the quantity raised in the United States is immense; and more than once, have the Americans supplied our City with Harvey Grass Seed, which we, in our simplicity, have bought as a Yankee Notion grown on Uncle Sam's Farm. Here then is a settlement through which, twenty years ago, there was no road. Emigrants disappointed by those who brought them here, were taken up by the Province, the expense to the country of the twenty-one families who founded that Settement, was £2,000. Who can estimate the wealth which that slight expenditure has rolled in upon us; land which was then and there procurable at 2s. 6d. an acre is now worth 32s. 6d., and has lately been sold for that: Common roads with good farmers did this - what will not Railroads and good farmers do with the same ground to work upon?

 
 

Brown, J. 1860. Third Essay. New Brunswick as a home for emigrants: with the best means of promoting immigration, and developing the resources of the province. Barnes and Company, 21 p. 0.9 MB download. Digitized 24 January 2006.

LINK TO PDF OF SCAN OF ENTIRE BOOK. 0.9 MB DOWNLOAD. GOOGLE BOOKS.

ORIGINAL FROM NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY.

There are several entries in this essay referring to Harvey beginning on p. 11:

In the spring of 1837, about thirty emigrant familes arrived at St. John, and went to Fredericton, intending to settle on the lands of the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company. They were a mixture of English and Scotch, from the banks of the Tweed, - farm labourers, healthy and strong, but without means. Disappointed in their engagements with the Company, they applied to Sir John Harvey, then Lieutenant Governor, who sent a message, recommending their case to the consideration of the House of Assembly, then in Session. At that time, the whole region from Hanwell to Magaguadavic (about thirty five miles) was an unbroken wilderness, and through it a line for a Great Road from Fredericton to Saint Andrews had just been explored and marked out; and a member of the Assembly who had assisted in the exploration, proposed to settle them on this line. He informed the House, that the line passed through an extensive tract of good hard wood land, near the Great Oromocto Lake. His plan, or scheme, was to lay off thirty-two lots, each of 80 rods front and 200 rods long, sixteen lots on each side of the road; to put all the men under the direction of two judiciious persons, well acquiainted with clearing land; to furnish them all with axes and provisions; cut down and prepare for burning an opening, twenty-eight rods wide and four miles long peel spruce bark to cover the houses; burn the chopping, clear the land (three acres on the front of each lot); build a log house on each; bring out the families; furnish them with supplies; let them prepare more ground for burning sow and plant each his three acres in the following spring; and pay for all in road work.

Such was the outline of the scheme then proposed, and which was agreed on at the time by the House of Assembly, but on preparing for the proposed survey, its was discovered the 2,200 acres of the intended land had previously been selected by three individuals, and could not, therefore, be obtained. This was a great disappointment, and a great hindrance at the outset. Another tract of land, less favourable, had to be selected; some of which was swampy, and not food for first crops. No conitnuous opening could be made, as in the first proposed scheme; the chopping had to be made in separate places, and the poor fellows, instead of getting each three acres ready for sowing and planting the following spring, had to toil on for three whole years, before they all got settled on their separate allotments. They proved firts rate road makers, and ultimately paid for all the supplies furnished by the Government. The following is an extract of the Report of the Hon. L. A. Wilmot, Commissioner of the Harvey settlement, to his Excellency Sir William M.G. Colebrooke, dated at Fredericton 9th February, 1844: -

"The great success which has followed the labours of these industrious and valuable settlers, is and unquestionable proof of what may yet be done on our millions of acres of wilderness lands. The return shews, that from land where not a tree had been felled in July 1837, there have been taken, during the past autumn, 260 tons of hay and straw, and 15,000 bushels of grain, potatoes and turnips.

"It is desirable that the return may be circulated among settlers friends and country men, in the north of England, as well as other parts of the United Kingdom, so that the capabilities of our new land soil may appear, and that it may also be made known, that we have at least five millions of acres yet undisposed of, a great proportion of which is of better quality than the land at Harvey, whereon the sober and industrious emigrant may create a home under the protection of British laws, and in the enjoyment of British institutions."

Those settlers began with nothing. They sufffered many hardships, but they were inured to labour, and overcame them all. They commenced in 1837, and in 1843 had property in cleared land, farm produce, cattle, sheep, swine, etc. of the value of £4,289. During all that time, only two deaths had occurred, while there had been thiry-nine births, and all without medical aid!

_________________________________________________________________

An additional entry referring to Harvey is to be found on p. 16 through 18 where the author describes at length how to clear the land and build a log cabin.

...But where a number of persons combine together to form a new settlement, a very different process should be adoped.

1st. A suiltable tract of wilderness land should be selected, and a road be carefully explored and marked out, to connect it with some road or setltment previously made.

2nd. The shape and size fo the block to be occupied should be determined on, and the outsde lines marked off. An oblong space, with tow parallel lines marked off. An oblong space, with tow paralled sides, and four square corners, is the most convenient.

3rd. A line of road through this block, from one end to the other, should then be explored and marked out by some suitable person, say a practical lumberer, who understands looking out and clearing roads in the woods, and hauling loads thereon. This is a most important part of the process, as all steep hills should be carefully avoided.

4th. The Surveyor should then lay off one tier of lots, of one hundred acres each, on each side of the line of road so marked out. Those lots, though all of one size, would not be all of the same shape; as the line of road, unless the land were level, or nearly so, would be crooked, so that the lots would differ from one another both in length and breadth.

This done, an opening should be made through the entire legnth of the block, by cutting down the trees on the fronts of all the lots on each side of the line of road, in the manner heretofore described in the case of the Harvey settlers.

Having previously described the whole process of clearing, sowing, planting, and harvesting, as applicable in this case, I shall now make a few remarks on the subject of building. "The building spot" should, in the first place, be well cleared and burnt, - no standing trees of combustible materials should be left on it. Some people fancy, that in clearing the land many of the forest trees should be left for "ornament and use." But this cannot well be done. Trees so left are very apt to be blown down. They are, therefore, dangerous neightbours when left standing within the reach of any building, hindrances to cultivation where they stand in the fields, and great nuisances after they fall. Trees of the original forest, when singled out and separated, will not live. Trees intended for ornament, shade, or shelter, must either be planted when young or small, or grown from the seed. But to the building:

1st. in the latter part of June, or any time in July, (no other time of the year will answer)l, take an axe and an adze into a spruce swamp, and peel as much bark as wil cover the intended house. Hack through the bark of a tree in a circle round the bottom with the axe; several feet above this make another circle through the bark with the adze; draw a perpendicular line with the edge of the axe form the upper circle to the lower, clean through from this line raise the edge of the bark from the tree with a sharpened stick - continue the process clear round, and in a few minutes you have a sheet of bark seven feet long, and as wide as the length of the circumference of the tree. Lay the first sheet on the level ground, (white side down)., and all the rest over it, like leaves in a book; put a weight on the top, and in a few days they will be straight and ready for use.

2d. Cut your building logs 22 feet long for the side walls, and 16 feet for the end walls. Dig your cellar of such size and depth as you can afford, or as may be most suitable. Make your house 20 feet long and 14 feet wide, inside, notching your logs togehter at the coners. Put plenty of sleepers at the bottom to support the floor and beams overhead, leaving seven feet clear for the height of your rooms. Notch your logs in suitable places for a door and three windows and saw them out with a cross-cut saw. Make the rafters nine feet long, four on each side. Put three ribs on each side of the roof, and a ridge-pole on the top; and let your ribs extend a foot over each gable end, and the walls of your house are up.

3d. Lay on your bark, one tier of sheets on each side of the roof, and double the third tier over the ridge-pole. Secure your bark with poles on the outside, placed exactly over the ribs, and fasten them to the same with withs at each end, and you have a good tight roof.

4th. Build your chimney close to the end wall. Split the jambs and mantel out of stone, if convenient; if not, take flat stones, and make a wide, high fire place, with a mantel of hemlock, which will stand fire better than any other wood. Build to the top with stone and clay if you can, if not, use sticks, with clay mixed with straw.

5th. If boards can be had, lay your floors with them. Set off seven feet across the end, for two bed rooms, which will leave your other room 13 X 14 feet. The Harvey settlers sawed their own boards with whip saws; but if this cannot be done, the ground floor can be made of hewn spruce, and the upper floor of straight poles. Three small windows will suffice, the one in the end lighting both bedrooms. A ladder, by the side of the chimney, will answer for stairs, and a hole in the gable end, with a suiltable wooden shutter, will serve for the garret window. Your cellar should be about 14X12 feet; it might do for a time without being walled, but will require to be carefully drained, and will be most conveniently entered by a trapdoor, in front of the fire place.

 

Hamilton, John, R. 1884. St. John and the province of New Brunswick. (Eastern Provinces Guides). (Link to extracted passage pertaining hunting and fishing opportunities in Harvey area). Digitized 9 May 2007. Google Books but not available for download. Original publication at Oxford University.

There is a brief entry referring to the nascent Harvey Settlement on p. 198:

…our baggage, we met the settlement road, and pursuing that for a short way, arrived at the “Clearing” called the “Harvey Settlement” where a few men of our corps were then stationed. Here we left our heavy traps, to be forwarded at some future opportunity, and started on the way back to Fredericton. After a walk of about eleven miles, during which we killed some brace of partridges we arrive at the…

Harvey Settlement Location Report From the Commissioners For Locating 25 Families of English Settlers New Brunswick Archives (RS344 2k, 16/2/1838)

This document, obtained from the New Brunswick Archives Fredericton, addressed to His Excellency Major General Sir John Harvey, Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, includes a “Report of the Commissioners [Thomas Baillie, L.A. Wilmot and James Taylor] For Locating 25 Families of English Settlers” dated 16 February, 1838. w


The following document contains a typed transcription of the original manuscript followed by scanned images of the hand written original manuscript. Page layout, punctuation and spelling in the typed transcript are as in the original manuscript. < > indicates indicipherable words and/or letters.

Text 

[NBA RS344 2k, 16/2/1838]

Lt. Goveror J. Harvey – Immig. Records
Harvey Settlement
Location
Report from the
Commissioners for locating
25 families
of English Settlers

Copy to be con[veyed]
To the House
of Ass[embly]
< signature >
Feby 24

53

16 Feb 1838

Text

Fredericton 16 Feby. 1838

May it please your Excellency,

The undersigned Commissioners for the locating of sundry English Emigrants under an order of council of the 29th July last bid leave to submit to Your Excellency the following report of their proceedings.

On receipt of the Order in Council it was ascertained that there were twenty five Families desirous of settling a vacant tact of Crown Land lying beyond Lake Eima on the new line of Great Road between Fredericton and Saint Andrews was selected as an admirable location on account of the superior quality of the soil and the prospect of the immediate completion of the Great Road which runs through the center of the tract.

A surveyor was accordingly sent out forthwith with instructions to lay off twenty five lots allowing forty rods front to each on the Road, and extending back so as to comprise forty acres, leaving in the rear sufficient vacant land to enable each settler to extend his lot as soon as he might be able to purchase the additional quantity.

 

To His Excellency
Major Genl. Sir John Harvey
K.C.H.C.B. &c &c &c

<end page 1>

Text

A competent person was employed to superintend the labours of the settlers and to instruct in the process of clearing and preparing the land for cultivation and in the erection of log houses. Operations were commenced in August and were most industriously and effectively prosecuted until the winter set in, by which time about an acre and a half had been cut down on each lot and twenty one log houses erected.

The two hundred pounds granted by the legislature has been principally expended in constructing the above operations and in the improving of parts of the Road between Fredericton and the settlement by the Emigrants themselves.

The undersigned beg to inform your Excellency that as part of the above sum has been paid to the Receiver General on account of the purchase money for the land, as it was considered that the amount could be more beneficially expended in the partial improvement of the Road and in forwarding preparations for the location of the settlers in the ensuing spring.

A quantity of seed potatoes has been procured in the vicinity of the settlement. Some oats will also be provided and a constant supervision will be kept up until the Emigrants

<end page 2>

Text 

shall have cropped and settled upon their respective allotments.

The undersigned have much pleasure in expressing their entire satisfaction with the conduct of the settlers. For industry — sobriety — and perseverance no men can surpass theirs; while they only want an opportunity to introduce the most approved systems of agriculture as now pursued in England.

All which is respectfully submitted

Thom Baillie
L. A. Wilmot
James Taylor

<end page 3>
<end of document>

 
 

Report of the Commissioners For Locating the Northumberland Emigrants
New Brunswick Archives (RS24 1839 re 5)

This document, obtained from the New Brunswick Archives, addressed to His Excellency Major General Sir John Harvey, Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, includes a “Report of the Commissioners [L.A. Wilmot and James Taylor] For Locating the Northumberland Emigrants” dated 2 March, 1839. A message in reply from His Excellency dated 5 March 1839 described in the original document cover page is not included here.


The following document contains a typed transcription of the original manuscript followed by scanned image of hand written original manuscript. Page layout, punctuation and spelling in the typed transcript are as in the original manuscript

Text

[RS24 1839 re 5]

Report of the
Commissioners
for locating the
Northumberland
Emigrants

 

Council


5 March 1839
Accompanied by
message from His Excellency

Text

A copy to be made

May it please your Excellency,

We, the under signed, appointed by your Excellency as commissioners for locating the Northumberland Emigrants, on the Great Road leading from Fredericton to Saint Andrews, beg leave to submit a Report of our proceedings for the past year, accompanied by some observations on the progress of the settlement.

The Settlers having severely made clearances on their lots in the summer and autumn of 1837 and being desirous of moving their families from Fredericton to the settlement before the winter, 20 acres were broken up, we deemed it most prudent, under all the circumstances, to affect their transportation in April last, in order that they might be on the ground to attend to getting

                                                                                                                                             in


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Text

in their crops, as also to procure employment on the Great Road leading through the settlement.

This step was not taken by us without a great deal of deliberation, as it became absolutely necessary to incur considerable expense in sending out provisions to support them during the Spring season and while the Roads were almost impassable.

From the difficulty of procuring employment for them here, and the consequent probability of them becoming entirely unproductive of earnings, from the extreme anxiety of them all to work on their lots, and from the certainty that the would find a great deal of employment on the Roads during the summer season, we concluded that their removal to the settlement in April was the best course we could adopt; and in the execution of this function we incurred the responsibilities of employing teams and purchasing provisions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The
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